There was more religious freedom in the Middle Colonies than in New England. The plantations of the Southern colonies mainly grew tobacco, indigo, and rice for export and raised most of their own food supplies. By 1750, the population of Philadelphia had reached 25,000; New York had reached 15,000; and the port of Baltimore had reached 7,000. The Mennonites are a splinter religious group that emigrated mostly to Pennsylvania. %��������� In contrast to the South where the cash crop plantation system dominated, and New England whose rocky soil made large-scale agriculture difficult, The middle colonies were fertile. Landholdings were generally farms of 40 to 160 acres, owned by the family that worked it. Maryland 202,599 5. The Middle colonies, including New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware all shared the benefit of flat land and rich soil, while the New England Colonies were left with a rocky landscape that made farming difficult. Wives and husbands often worked as a team and taught their children their crafts to pass on through the family. Once colonization had begun, the Middle Colonies were more ethnically diverse than the other British colonial regions in North America and tended to be more socially tolerant. Many of these colonists later moved to Boston, Nova Scotia, and North Carolina. Many of the frontier provinces saw influxes of immigrants due to the availability of cheap land. A) The Chesapeake and North Carolina colonies grew prosperous exporting tobacco — a labor-intensive product initially cultivated by white, mostly male indentured servants and later by enslaved Africans. Eighteenth Century British Colonies. Demographics include age, income, mobility (in terms of travel time to work or number of vehicles available), educational attainment, home ownership, employment status, and even location. For example, in New York, any foreigner professing Christianity was awarded citizenship, which made for a diverse (albeit largely Christian) populace. It was established by William Penn as a haven for Quakers in the New World. x��]ɒ���W�ŊQݪ}�O�p�¢L�t��pBq8b��� ������20���L��r{�������ҵ�RJ5���R�T�j�R�U��x]�RM�o��Uuy_����/����6i�?�����Uj��`m�������{[��Ϸ�x{[}�\ղR�ۛ��ۯ�������;g��z?�m��?�%ۏ={S|�ұ}���g��m���v�*v@�T�ş�����X�����*�'F���M/���}�?�^U�lw�>b���z�iŗ�gab�F�,���9�Җk}^n�i�s��x�|������Ū1��(��u�P~�j?O���{]�3O�'Z���u�Ě徟ݖO"�������4�naB���&ő����wY>q�}rO�\2��,����e����������|r��M���P��v��NʃM�������؝Df'ɶ�my�M��5�3��‚��(�|g!�%�E���e�$��Y�9�b�5�&|*�v{:+�%?�H,�8��¤�Gߨ��t����|�{T��Ӌ�B�6���1-Y{-�o���s7���O��W&�����Cv%6��J(i��L���Ő�.�-%pf�r�g=�Ol��K#P������x�b'�n�����y��k�y�jc�w�~�w�,�frƩ�;��\��jL�\��`%�lش�P���E�g�5�u��4� ���[*/�n;�3���zoj��&����z���l�C��x� Excellent land for farming: region became known as the "bread colonies" for exports of grain; also fruits and vegetables. KEY ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MIDDLE COLONIES. Choose from 500 different sets of middle colonies settlement flashcards on Quizlet. Some came in 1683 to settle in Pennsylvania. Massachusetts 235,808 4. BY: HYSTORIAN VIVIANE HARLE 2. These colonies were created to be more tolerant to various religious beliefs, and the population grew to include a variety of backgrounds such as Italian, Germans, Dutch, French, Danes, Swedish, Norwegians, Poles, and Portuguese. During the First Great Awakening, evangelists came from the ranks of several Protestant denominations: Congregationalists, Anglicans (members of the Church of England), and Presbyterians. Pennsylvania, founded by William Penn, is an excellent example of a proprietary colony. In the north, many colonists lived on small, self-sufficient farms and enjoyed a fairly high level of education and personal liberty. Social Studies. The New England colonists largely originated from England, Ireland, and Scotland. Learn middle colonies settlement with free interactive flashcards. The Middle Colonies shared the fertile land of the Southern Colonies and many large fields of wheat could be found and they shared the industry of timber and fishing. The populations of four Colonies—Virginia, Massachusetts, North Carolina and New York—do not include certain territorial claims that became separate states after the Revolution. Every male citizen had a voice in the town meeting. The Middle and Northern colonies differed considerably in their geographical aspects, leading to dissimilar social and political features. Methodists originally settled in New England but spread through the colonies, and Moravians also emigrated to Pennsylvania. Quakers, Mennonites, Lutherans, Dutch Calvinists, and Presbyterians were all represented, which made it impossible for one religion to dominate and gave a greater freedom of religion than any of the New England Colonies, with exception to Rhode Island. The colonies that were the most specialized in the production of goods, such as sugar and coffee, relied the most heavily on slaves. European travelers in the colonies were fairly numerous, and, fortunately for us, many of them were observant men who published their impressions. Most colonial cities were seaports. They settled in small villages, many for common religious activities, and Puritans initially dominated the region. The middle colonies were the Delaware Colony, the New Jersey Colony, the New York Colony, and the Pennsylvania Colony.Their climate helped them become the 'breadbasket' of British North America. Demographics of the Middle Colonies. In many ways, the middle colonies served as the crossroads of ideas during the colonial period. The Mennonites left Germany because they were persecuted for refusing to perform military service on the basis of religious objections. The group left Moravia and Bohemia in response to harsh persecution for their religious beliefs and practices. a. New York allowed churches to be established on the local level, and towns to vote on which church their taxes would support. The following are common characteristics of the middle class. In the 17th century, early British colonies developed along the Atlantic coast, with regional differences that reflected various environmental, economic, cultural, and demographic factors. Shopkeepers, artisans, shipwrights, butchers, coopers, seamstresses, cobblers, bakers, carpenters, masons, and many other specialized professions made up the middle class of seaport society. Use Picture Stories for discussion starters. In New England, the Puritan settlers brought their strong religious values with them to the New World, which dictated that a woman be subordinate to her husband and dedicate herself to rearing “God-fearing” children to the best of her ability. Current and former indentured servants made up as much as 80% of the population in Virginia in the 17th century. Whereas demography is a descriptive and predictive science, demographics is an applied art and science. From the foundation of the colonies beginning with the founding of Jamestown until the beginning of the Revolutionary War, different regions of the eastern coast had different characteristics. The Mennonites tended to be very conservative and had their own hymns and Psalters. By 1750, the combined populations of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania had reached nearly 300,000 people after an influx of German, Swiss, and Irish immigrants. Economy in the Middle Colonies. They practiced hymn singing daily, and some wrote instrumental music. Learn More. B. The 18th century saw a host of social, religious, and intellectual changes across the British Empire. Demographic characteristics All of the systems of government in the Southern Colonies elected their own legislature, they were all democratic, they all had a governor, governor's court, and a court system. CC licensed content, Specific attribution, http://cnx.org/contents/p7ovuIkl@3.30:ZC7sZcO-@3/Charles-II-and-the-Restoration, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southern_Colonies, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Province_of_Georgia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virginia#Colony, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographic_history_of_the_United_States%23Earlier_Colonial_era, http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Philadelphia, http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/New_England, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:William_Penn_at_22_1666.jpg, http://www.boundless.com//u-s-history/definition/maryland-experiment, http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/US_History/Colonial_Religion, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_religion_in_the_United_States%23Eighteenth_century, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Roger_Williams_statue_by_Franklin_Simmons.jpg, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colonial_history_of_the_United_States%23Colonial_life, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/yeoman%20farmers, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/freehold%20ownership, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:PewsOldShip.jpeg. Charter companies were made up of groups of stockholders, usually merchants and wealthy landowners, who sought personal economic gain and, in some cases, wanted to advance England’s national goals. They were divided into three groups. New Netherland, founded in 1624 at Fort Orange (now Albany) by the Dutch West India Company, was but one element in a wider program of Dutch expansion in the first half of the 17th century. All APUSH students should be able to identify and describe characteristics of the 13 British colonies. The demographic characteristics and consequences of dispersal were studied in a population of Peromyscus leucopus with an extensive system of live-trapping grids. This coupled with religious freedom gave more options to immigrants who were migrating from Europe. Each colony had its own unique characteristics, but historians lump them. The Middle colonies had some slaves while the New England colonies had very few slaves. Once established, the 13 British colonies could be divided into three geographic areas: New England, Middle, and Southern. stream The Middle Colonies were literally a middle ground between its borders to the North and South, wherein elements of both New England towns and sprawling country estates were manifested, and religious dissidents from all regions could settle in the relatively tolerant middle zone. Slavery developed quickly in the Carolinas, largely because so many of the early migrants came from Barbados, where slavery was well established. The middle colonies were known as the breadbasket colonies because a lot of grain was grown there. The eastern and northern frontier around the initial New England settlements was mainly settled by the Yankee descendants of the original New Englanders. The mid-A… Nonetheless, the Great Awakening touched the lives of thousands on both sides of the Atlantic and provided a shared experience in the 18th-century British Empire. As time went on, many new immigrants ended up on the frontiers because of the cheaper availability of land. %PDF-1.3 Three rivers -- Susquehanna, Delaware, and Hudson -- tapped fur trade in the interior. Laborers stood at the bottom of seaport society. (A Second Great Awakening would take place in the 1800s.) Large farmers and merchants became wealthy, while farmers with smaller farms and artisans only made enough for subsistence. They all had a common goal, which was to govern themselves and have a say in how they were represented. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Immigration and migration patterns in the early colonies were diverse and varied greatly from one region to the next. This could not be said of the middle colonies. Demographic characteristics are population characteristics such as age, sex etc that are used in demography to develop a demographic profile. The Middle Colonies were the most ethnically diverse British colonies in North America, with settlers coming from all parts of Europe. The three colonies had major differences in their governments, religion, manufacturing industries, and … Large middle class built around artisans, entrepreneurs (business owners), and small farmers. The Great Awakening saw the rise of several Protestant denominations, including Methodists, Presbyterians, and Baptists (who emphasized adult baptism of converted Christians rather than infant baptism). Excellent land for farming: region became known as the "bread colonies" for exports of grain; also fruits and vegetables. The Middle Colonies were more diverse than the other regions, and also less cohesive. The influence of these older Protestant groups, such as the New England Congregationalists, declined because of the Great Awakening. 2. Describe the varied religious landscape of the American colonies. New England In the New England colonies, settlers went there for religious freedom. The demographics of the lower South colonies (58% of blacks were enslaved, compared to 36% in upper South and 3% in the North) in 1750 most directly contributed to which of the following conditions for enslaved people? I. Characteristics of eighteenth-century British Colonial America A. In New England, high-level politicians gave out plots of land to male settlers, or proprietors, who then divided the land amongst themselves. New England was settled by a highly educated, agricultural demographic, and its population grew rapidly due to favorable weather conditions that kept disease low. Landholdings were generally farms of 40 to 160 acres (16–65 hectares), owned by the family that worked it. New England was settled by a highly educated, agricultural demographic, and its population grew rapidly due to favorable weather conditions that kept disease low. Demographics Edit. The religion of the Middle Colonies, as one would expect, was diverse. Using By 1780, about 287,000 slaves had been imported into the 13 colonies, most into the southern colonies. Virginia, Massachusetts, Maryland, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Hampshire, the Carolinas and Georgia were all founded by Englishmen, settled by people of English descent and remained under English control throughout the colonial period. The town meeting levied taxes, built roads, and elected officials who managed town affairs. Most of the early settlers depended on the fur trade and on farming for economic survival. 1880: Religious meetinghouses were important centers of community life in the colonies. Unlike New England, the mid-Atlantic region gained much of its population from new immigration. During the 18th century, the British Atlantic experienced an outburst of Protestant revivalism known as the First Great Awakening. New York: Founded in 1626 by the Dutch and initially called New Netherlands, the colony of New York was renamed to its current name by the Duke of York, after the King of England gave it to him following the colonies acquisition by the English. Finally, the geography and climate of the Middle Colonies affected who would settle there by dictating the economic activities of the region. The Middle Colonies Society in the middle colonies was far more varied, cosmopolitan and tolerant than in New England. The New England colonies which consisted of Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island. The mid-Atlantic region, by 1750, was divided by both ethnic background and wealth. Other New England merchants took advantage of the rich fishing areas along the Atlantic coast. This was partly due to the haphazard manner in which these colonies were populated, with many settlers spread throughout the colonies on small family farms. Seventeenth-century rates, beginning from a low base and more influenced by immigration, were even higher. A. To decide which region was the best, I have chosen three factors to focus … Instead, membership was limited to those who could convincingly test before members of the church that they had been saved. They could not divorce, and even single women could not make contracts, or sue anyone or be sued, at least until the late 18th century. These religiously-affiliated schools may be reflective of the fact that New Englanders wrote journals, pamphlets, books, and especially sermons—more than all of the other colonies combined. The middle class included skilled workers and farmers. Three rivers -- Susquehanna, Delaware, and Hudson -- tapped fur trade in the interior. The typical woman in colonial America was expected to run a household and attend to domestic duties such as spinning, sewing, preserving food, animal husbandry, cooking, and cleaning while raising children. Which are some characteristics of the Middle Colonies? American colonies, the 13 British colonies that were established during the 17th and early 18th centuries in the area that is now a part of the eastern United States. Seventeenth-century rates, beginning from a low base and more influenced by immigration, were even higher. I. Characteristics of Middle Colonies. 2 0 obj The southern regions are composed of five different states Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. New York, New Jersey, Delaware and Pennsylvania, the "middle colonies" of the original thirteen British colonies, were characterized by greater religious toleration and greater ethnic and religious diversity than their neighbors to north and south. However, the slaves did not accrue wages or benefit from any of this profit. Both Canada and the white population of the English colonies experienced increases of 2½ percent per year during the eighteenth century. Georgia was envisioned by its founder, General Oglethorpe, as a colony which would serve as a haven for English subjects who had been imprisoned for debt–essentially a province for the resettlement of “the worthy poor.” Oglethorpe banned alcohol, disagreed with slavery, and thought a system of smallholdings more appropriate than the large plantations common in the colonies to the north. Religion in the Middle Colonies. Public schooling was rare outside New England. Methodism spread to America in the late 1760s. Frequent conversion to evangelical Christianity B. The political implications, although not realized at the time, were enormous. Colonies such as Pennsylvania and Delaware had more farming. Meanwhile, William Penn, who founded the colony of Pennsylvania in 1682, attracted many British Quakers with his policies of religious liberty and freehold ownership. The middle colonies were founded by many different ethnic and religious groups, aided by policies of tolerance. Families tended to be large, and childbearing could be dangerous prior to advancements in medicine and health care. << /Length 4 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode >> The northern and southern American colonies had plenty of differences, but one thing they all pretty much had in common was ancestry. Politically, they were generally inactive until 1740, when they joined a Quaker-led coalition that took control of the legislature. These colonies were created to be more tolerant to various religious beliefs, and the population grew to include a variety of backgrounds such as Italian, Germans, Dutch, French, Danes, Swedish, Norwegians, Poles, and Portuguese. Also, as an activity, ask your child to interpret the images, and tell a story about the Southern Colonies. Slavery in colonial America was very oppressive, as it passed on from generation to generation and slaves had no legal rights. The 13 Colonies by population in 1770 As the Revolution approached, this is how the Colonies ranked in size. Large portions were usually given to men of higher social standing, but every white man—who wasn’t indentured or criminally bonded—had enough land to support a family. Drawing of Roger Williams statue, by Franklin Simmons, 1903: Roger Williams, president of the Colony of Rhode Island, was a religious reformer and early Baptist. Identify the statements that describe poverty in the colonies in the eighteenth century. The towns did not have courts—that was a function of a larger unit, the county, whose officials were appointed by the state government. However, with extremely cheap land prices, many Protestants moved to Maryland and soon became a majority of the population. The Chesapeake – Maryland and Virginia – have many distinct characteristics. Eighteenth Century British Colonies In the eighteenth century, the British Colonies in North America experienced many changes that helped form the identity of America. THE MIDDLE COLONIES/ FOUNDERS The Middle Colonies are made up of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. After 1720, mid-Atlantic farming was stimulated with the international demand for wheat. A colonial woman was expected to be subservient to her father until she married, at which point she became subservient to her husband. Merchants dominated seaport society and about 40 merchants controlled half of Philadelphia’s trade. The middle colonies’ settlements were scattered west of New York City and Philadelphia. Many of the frontier provinces saw influxes of immigrants due to the availability of cheap land. Some colonists were skilled artisans. It created a religious and ethnic pluralism that attracted immigrants from all over Europe. British Colonies Long Essay The values of each the North, Middle, and South colonies were different. Many more settlers arrived during this time as well, especially Protestant sects seeking freedom of religion. In New England, the Puritans created self-governing communities of religious congregations of yeoman farmers and their families. The main commercial center of Philadelphia was run mostly by prosperous Quakers, supplemented by many small farming and trading communities with strong German contingents located in the Delaware River Valley. Middle and Southern Colonies. The Southern colonies built their society around the system of plantations; subsequently, many of the inhabitants of those colonies were enslaved Africans. Much later during the colonial experience, as the values of the American Enlightenment were imported from Britain, the philosophies of such thinkers as John Locke weakened the view that husbands were natural “rulers” over their wives and replaced it with a (slightly) more liberal conception of marriage. However, women continued to have very few rights. -The Middle Colonies were the most ethnically diverse. 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