White and black southern religious folk cultures drew from common evangelical beliefs and attitudes and swapped musical and oratorical styles and forms. For example, white religious institutions and practices in the South in the 19th and 20th centuries reflected and reinforced racism. Writing in the midst of the civil rights revolution, scholars could not help but see cultural captivity when stiff-necked deacons and ushers stood cross-armed at church house doors, defending segregation now and segregation forever. The South, then, is the most solidly evangelical region of the country, and the South’s evangelicals are the most conservative in terms of voting patterns, views of biblical authority, and attitudes toward significant social issues. Look it up now! Black and white Pentecostals seized on the opportunities provided by mass media to spread their message. A fledgling national government, the Articles of Confederation, had finally been ratified in March 1781, but it proved unable to cope with the multiple demands of a new nation not all of whose constituent states yet fully accepted even this relatively weak central government. In short, “national” patterns of race relations, including increasing racial segregation of housing (a distinct change from the historic southern pattern of closely mingling and sometimes intersecting white and black residential areas, in part due to the economy of domestic service on which white households depended), became part of the “Southern way of life.”. Despite what society says, there's still a place for manners in the South. The South, by contrast, was known for deism among intellectuals such as Thomas Jefferson, High Church Anglicanism among white planters, rabble-rousing in the backcountry among Scots-Irish folk famously indifferent or hostile to organized religion of any kind, enslaved people whose religious views appeared to whites to be largely inscrutable and unknowable, and Native Americans in dozens of religious groupings varying by geography and tribal groupings. More recently, scholars of the civil rights era have pointed out the fact that prominent black ministers avoided association with the movement, with some clearly complicit in the oppressive system. They saw it differently: what did it prosper the slaves to gain earthly freedom yet lose the chance for eternal life? All who receive Christ as Lord may have it. A total of 14 percent of Texas residents and 17 percent of Floridians were born outside the United States. The result was a return to the older form of purely personal evangelism with a vengeance. Southern evangelical culture also varied greatly by subregion—between city and country, the Southeast and Southwest, Virginia and Texas, Florida and Kentucky, the Appalachian Mountains and the Lowcountry, the piney woods and the Black Belt, the Dust Bowl and the Florida swamplands. The largest percentage of these consists of Latino immigrants, especially to Texas and Florida; but they have increasingly been joined by Asian immigrants to southern cities. In the 18th century both the Baptists and Methodists had been bruised by their involvement with government and political issues and had made almost a fetish of noninvolvement with political causes. | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples White southern religious ideas of the social order of the races, moreover, could be intellectually grounded in a conservative vision of the role of hierarchy in preserving order and staving off anarchy. By the 1970s, many white southern believers accommodated themselves with remarkable ease to the demise of white supremacy as fundamentally constitutive of their society. culture of the region. But most worked through the problem, coming ultimately to believe that God was the author of their defeat. That penalty, now paid in full, means God offers forgiveness and new life as a free gift. Radio became their most effective medium, for it reached out-of-the-way places where many parishioners lived. Six of ten southerners said they accepted the account of creation in Genesis over Darwin. But the group of Baptists that would eventually prove to be the predecessors of today’s Southern Baptist Convention were led by two Connecticut Yankee ministers, Shubal Stearns and Daniel Marshall, who, enthused by the New England Great Awakening, had a vision that sent them on a missionary trek to the Southland. The resulting turmoil eventually led to the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia and the U.S. Constitution, but a stressful series of ratifying elections and conventions in the various states kept political controversy alive until formal ratification in 1788. An evening mist swirled around him as a lone red spotlight shone. The most famous of the subsequent camp meetings was that held at Cane Ridge, Kentucky, in August 1801, with at least several thousand in attendance (contemporary estimates ranged as high as 20,000, surely too high), but within two years camp meetings had occurred in every Southern state, often erupting almost immediately after word was received of the religious awakening taking place to the west. No historical snapshot, as it were, can fully capture its dynamism or reveal the full complexity and range of its power, but several useful generalizations can be offered. In the culture of the United States, the idea of Southernization came from the observation that Southern values and beliefs had become more central to political success, reaching an apogee in the 1990s, with a Democratic President and Vice President from the South and Congressional leaders in both parties being from the South. In no other widely dispersed region, save for the Mormon regions of the Rocky Mountain West, does one family of religious belief and expression hold such sway over so many people and throughout such a large area. On occasion, they shared liminal moments of religious transcendence, before moving back into a Jim Crow world where color defined and limited everything. In the last two decades many Southern white evangelicals have gotten involved in politics, but their influence on the whole has been more narrowly moralistic than broadly prophetic. Thus, in looking at “minority” religions in the South (which includes Catholicism, Judaism, Asian religions, and Islam), one faces first their near invisibility in the region, at least until quite recently. Some topics (such as Appalachian mountain religious expression) have drawn the attention of anthropologists but not often of historians. Printed from Oxford Research Encyclopedias, Religion. … Southern Adventist University’s School of Religion has comprehensive programs in theology and pastoral care. By the mid-1780’s an enthusiastic Methodist culture reflected the success of the Methodist itinerants at spreading their belief system among pockets of supporters across much of the South. Thus, in the recent controversies within southern church organizations, race has been one of the very few items on the agenda not in dispute. In North Carolina, Latinos and Asians constituted less than 2 percent of the population in 1990, but that figure rose dramatically in the subsequent decade. Since the 1960s the standard biblical arguments against racial equality have become relics, embarrassments from a bygone age. 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